• Who is Klean Industries Inc?

    Klean Industries Inc (“Klean”) is a environmental engineering and clean technology solutions company that is specialized at converting many waste streams into clean high-grade alternative energy products and value-added materials. Klean owns, manufactures, licenses, and develops technologies. We also provide consulting and distribution services for a number of proprietary technologies and solutions to recover resources. Klean provides tailor-made solutions for all kinds of energy and waste disposal problems, including complex supply and disposal concepts for municipalities, public utilities and industry. Our knowledge and expertise in the area of waste-treatment technologies and logistics systems are supported by a network of facilities and engineering accomplishments that enable Klean to provide solutions for virtually all waste streams anywhere around the world.

    Our systematic passion for engineering superior solutions for today’s waste streams, combined with our exceptional technological achievements in these areas adds to our integrated skill sets and unique knowledge base. Klean Industries is a solid and unique team of executives and engineers with hundreds of years’ worth of combined experience who share a common vision and understanding that sustainable growth can only be achieved when there is symbiosis between waste and growth as Mother Nature designed.

  • What is Tertiary Recycling?

    It is the structural breakdown of materials into their original raw core components that made up the original product.

  • What feedstocks does Klean Industries process commercially?

    The Klean Industries thermal conversion processes transform a wide variety of waste streams into renewable sources. Some of these include oil to meet our transportation, electricity and heating requirements, and minerals from organic waste to be used as fertilizer. Some examples of the renewable feedstocks that we currently process commercially include:

    Industrial Wastes such as Shredder Residues (including ASR), Tires, and Mixed Plastics. Municipal Wastes such as Municipal Sewage Sludge (MSS), Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), and Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Sludge. Food Processing / Agricultural Wastes such as Poultry (Offal, Feathers, Bones, Litter, Manure, Protein Meal); Beef (Offal, MDM, Paunch, Bone Meal), Pork (Offal, Manure, Grease), Fish, Biomass and other waste streams.

  • What is the expected generation of electrical energy?

    A Klean WTE plant using processed MSW will generate a net of 1,200-1,400 kWh per ton for use by the local utility. At the price of $0.8 per kWh, the revenues per ton of processed MSW would be $96-$150.

  • What are the costs to operate the facility after it is complete?

    In addition to the capital charges, a 1000-ton per day plant would engage personnel of about 60, plus other costs such as services, materials, supplies. Each project needs to be studied on a case by case basis, the costs are a direct result of a Detailed Feasibility Study which must be done prior to ever building a facility.

  • What are the economic benefits?
    • The value of the electrical energy generated.
    • The “tipping” fees paid by the communities using the WTE facility.
    • The value of the ferrous and non-ferrous scrap collected.
    • Cost of land-fill space is less or eliminated altogether.
    • Valuable land reclaimed for other purposes if the land-fill site is mined and cleaned up.
  • What is the amount of ash and/or vitrified glass generated?

    It varies depending on the technology used however with respect to the use of a incineration based process you can typically expect to see 10-15% of the input volume to be left over as an ash and with regard to a gasification based process using MSW as the primary feedstock you can expect 5-10% of the volume of the MSW processed to be converted into a vitrified glass, depending upon the process technology used and the desired configuration.

  • What are the environmental benefits of using WTE instead of land-filling?
    • WTE plants conserve fossil fuels by generating electricity. One ton of MSW combusted reduces oil use by one barrel (i.e., 35 gallons) or 0.25 tons of coal.
    • It has been estimated that one ton of MSW combusted rather than land-filled reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 1.5 tons of carbon dioxide.
    • WTE plants do not have the aqueous emissions that may be experienced in landfills, either now or in the distant future.
    • WTE plants reduce the space required for land-filling by about 90%.
  • What is the amount of MSW generated by the average U.S. citizen and how much of it is suitable for combustion?

    Americans generate about 1.19 metric tons of MSW per person, each year. The 2002 Bio- Cycle/Columbia University national survey showed that Americans recycle about 19.5% of the MSW generated, compost an additional 9%, combust in WTE facilities 8% and landfill about 63%. The Earth Engineering Center of Columbia University has estimated that of the present MSW generated in the U.S., at the most 40% can be recycled or composted. Therefore, the maximum possible MSW available for combustion in modern WTE facilities will be 60%, instead of the present 8%.

  • What is the minimum amount of solid waste that is needed for a WTE plant?

    There are economies of scale in any construction project, and building a WTE plant is no exception. Larger plants result in lower costs per ton of MSW processed. In the U.S., most WTE facilities range from 500 to 3,000 tons per day. Klean WTE plants are scalable from 100 tons per day to 5,000+ tons per day of processed characterized MSW

  • What are the preliminary requirements and steps that must be taken, negotiations to be completed, contracts to be signed before a facility can be built?

    A Klean WTE facility requires a site, first and foremost, that is properly zoned and near major roads, highways, a utility substation, and has water, sewage and an appropriate industrial infrastructure. Approximately 25 acres is preferred, but some facilities are located on as little as 5 acres if trucks can line up off site. Before construction can begin, a projects needs to secure the following:

    • Waste characterization in terms of composition, heating content, moisture, etc.
    • Site control through lease or ownership.
    • Proper zoning and/or land use conformance.
    • Environmental permits.
    • Utility interconnections.
    • Power purchase agreement including off-take guarantees.
    • Materials purchase agreements.
    • Ash disposal (landfill) capacity if necessary.
    • Waste supply commitments to ensure future viability.
    • Acceptable credit worthiness of all project participants including the government, bank utility or other entity require to make financial guarantees.
    • Guarantees including governmental entities at the federal, state, and local levels.
    • Current cost of waste disposal.
    • Availability and cost of disposal alternatives.
    • Once the site and all contracts are secured, the facility may be financed and construction can begin. The construction period lasts approximately 18-24 months.
  • Where are WTE facilities located in North America?

    In the US (as of 2014) there are approximately 88 waste-to-energy facilities in 23 states have the capacity to process more than 96,000 tons of waste per day with a baseload electric capacity of 2,769 megawatt hours. Due to superior operational reliability, the nation’s waste-to-energy facilities process in excess of 30 million tons of trash per year, sell more than 14.5 million megawatt hours to the grid, and recover more than 730,000 tons of ferrous metals for recycling. In addition, many facilities sell steam directly to end users offsetting the use of fossil fuels to make that energy. In Canada there are 7 energy from waste facilities.

  • Most WTE facilities located in the United States accept and dispose of waste that is generated by commercial sources that is non-hazardous, how are the Klean WTE facilities different?

    Most WTE facilities combust special, non-hazardous wastes such as off-specification household products and goods that cannot be recycled. However, Klean’s WTE pyrolysis process is designed and US-EPA approved to safely dispose of even the most hazardous materials known to man, therefore there are no limitations as to what can or cannot be disposed of through the system process.

  • How do WTE emissions compare with those from other types of plants that generate energy?

    The WTE industry recent the EPA’s New Clean Air Act “Maximum Control Technology” (MACT) standards. In a 2002 letter, U.S.E.P.A. Assistant Administrators Jeffery Holmstead, Office of Air and Radiation, and Marianne Lamont Horinkontly completed a more than $1 billion retrofit to existing facilities, the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, recognized the “vital role of the nation’s municipal waste-to-energy industry” and concluded that “these plants produce 2800 megawatts of electricity with less environmental impact than almost any other source of electricity.” The Table below shows the dioxin/furan TEQ emissions in the U.S. from various sources that also include WTEs. The following figure compares mercury emissions from WTEs and coal-fired power plants in the U.S.

  • How frequently are new WTE plants built, and where?

    In the U.S., most of today’s operating WTE plants were built in the period of 1980-1995. Energy prices and landfill disposal costs dropped in the mid-1990’s making WTE plants more difficult to develop. However, new WTE units are under development in several states including Florida, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota. Crowded urban areas and locations where groundwater is close to the surface benefit most from WTE facilities. Abroad, there have been over 60 new WTE plants built since 1996 and some are under construction. In all there are over 600 WTE plants in the world located in 37 nations, including Bermuda, Singapore and China.

  • What are the constituents of ash?

    Generally, WTE residues can be differentiated into two fractions: The term fly ash refers to the fine particles that are removed from the flue gas. However, usually the fly ash includes also residues from other air pollution control devices, such as scrubbers. Fly ash typically amounts to 5-10% by weight of the total ash. The rest of the WTE ash is called bottom ash and/or vitrified glass which is about 10% by weight of the total ash. The chemical composition of the ash depends strongly on the original MSW feedstock and the combustion process.

  • Can WTE ash and/or vitrified glass be used for anything useful?

    WTE ash and/or vitrified glass has been reused in construction since the early 70’s. Common applications are sub-base material, structural fill, and aggregate in asphalt or concrete. However, in the past, contaminant concentrations of fly ash exceeded the allowable threshold values. Ash reuse is therefore restricted to proven processes. Because there are no nationwide standards in the U.S. less than 5% of the WTE ash is beneficially used (compared to bottom ash reuse of ~70% in Germany and ~90% in the Netherlands). The government of Bermuda uses the entire WTE ash in concrete products for artificial reefs or shore abatements. The Waste-to-Energy Research and Technology Council is therefore taking an innovative approach towards our understanding and beneficial use of ash. An interdisciplinary and inter-institutional research group will carry out a comprehensive project on reuse applications such as engineered aggregate, cement blocks, asphalt, remediation of brown-fields and abandoned mines, and concrete. One of the main goals is to recommend authoritative, nationwide standard specifications.

  • What environmental laws and regulations must be followed by WTE plants?
    In the USA, WTE facilities are primarily regulated under the federal Clean Air Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The Clean Air Act requires plants to obtain permits whose provisions are based on plant size and technology. Federal and state regulators enforce emissions limits for sulfur dioxide, hydrogen chloride, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, particulates, cadmium, lead, mercury, and dioxins. Operating conditions, monitoring, reporting, training and safety requirements also apply under the Clean Air Act. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act require testing of the plants’ ash residue to determine that the ash is non-hazardous and properly disposed or reused. States often take authority for enforcement of the regulations and require even stricter environmental limits on the facilities’ operation than imposed by the federal rules. State-specific requirements can include more strict emission limits, testing or reporting than federal rules; additional solid waste management, recycling, noise, site selection, transportation and related regulations; and water use or waste water management limits.
  • What are the different WTE technologies?

    The predominant technology is mass burning and the foremost process used is that developed by Martin (Munich, Germany) with installed annual capacity of about 59 million metric tons. The Von Roll (Zurich, Switzerland) mass burning process follows with 32 million tons worldwide. Other mass burning technologies are the roller grate (DB) and the Westinghouse process. There are several plants in the U.S. based on the Refuse-Derived Fuel (RDF) process that pre-shreds the waste into small pieces and separates some of the non-combustible materials (metals and glass). And Klean is one of the only companies in the world positioned to deploy proven US-EPA approved Rotary Kiln pyrolysis technology that can destroy 307 most toxic waste materials with a DRE (Destruction Removal Efficiency) of 99.99999% with ash and steam as the only remaining byproducts.

  • Is recycling compatible with use of WTE facilities in a community?

    As a rule, the communities that invest in WTE plants, because of the energy and environmental benefits described above, also do as much as possible recycling before sending the non-recyclable waste to their WTE. Despite all good intentions and efforts some waste materials are not recyclable economically in the U.S. because of the comparatively low cost of fossil fuels. For example, out of the 25 million tons of plastics generated annually in the U.S., only 1.5 million tons are recycled, 3.5 million are combusted and 20 million tons are land-filled, despite the fact that their heating value is higher than the best U.S. coal.

  • Why can't New York City recycle the same as San Francisco who are said to recycle 60% of their MSW?

    It is easy to juggle % recycling rates but the real evidence of sound waste management is provided by how many tons of MSW a city landfills. The official SF web page,, reports that SF generates 4,000 tons MSW per day of which 60% is land- filled. Therefore, SF citizens (population 760,000) landfill 0.96 tons per capita which is slightly higher than the California average of 0.9 tons and nearly the same as NYC. Tourist destinations usually generate more MSW per capita.

  • Do Klean plants pollute the environment?

    Depending on the system, and what waste streams are being processed, certain fuel emission are produced via combustion. All of Klean’s operating plants have been tested by the highest standards and the Company’s patented technologies are internationally proven, and exceeds the most stringent environmental standards in place in Canada, the U.S.A. (California included) and Japan. Since the mid-1970s, the technologies offered by Klean Industries have undergone a series of tests, updates and improvements in a never-ending pursuit of perfection with this in mind over 30 years of research and development has been conducted to produce solutions and technologies that exceed any resource-recovery technologies currently available from other vendors. Commercialization of the Klean technologies took place over 30 years.

  • Can Klean Industries provide test results on it products?

    Yes, Klean Industries has independent test results on all of its products. We can provide 3rd party analysis on all our products from many of our facilities. Product samples are available upon request. As standard practice we usually require our clients to visit several of the more than 500 facilities that are in commercial operation and conduct what we call visual & physical testing using the client’s specific feedstock when appropriate. Please note that we charge fees for all test results and all projects require feedstock testing.

  • What products do you get when you process waste from a typical food processing plant?

    Klean Industries’ technologies turn post-consumer mixed plastics and tires into hydrocarbon fuels and recoverable minerals and metals. The majority of these components are hydrocarbon-based and derived from crude oil therefore, it makes sense to recover these resources and integrate them back into the supply chain, given the cost of energy and crude in today’s escalating market.

  • What products do you get when you process waste from a municipal plant?

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) plants have a varied mixture of organic wastes (organic food waste, paper, plastic, etc.) and inorganic wastes (dirt, metals, and glass). Therefore, the yields from these plants are renewable fuels and other useful mineral products. Sewage sludge is similar to certain kinds of agricultural waste, except it typically has far more water content; therefore, less valuable products will be produced.

  • What is the cost per litre of Klean fuel produced?

    As an example, and depending on the technology configurations, we can produce a barrel of high-grade synthetic diesel oil from waste plastics for less than $0.30 cents per liter and based on a fully containerized plant approximately $0.20 cents per liter. This high-quality fuel can be used in any standard diesel engine with no engine modifications required. Our renewable diesel pricing is extremely competitive with traditional crude oil.

  • Are the plants economically viable?

    Klean Industries utilizes technologies with a commercial history of over 30 years and there are over 500 successful reference facilities. All our commercial plants meet and exceed our client’s expectations. As an example, one of the latest large-scale installations has been operating for over 60 months with ZERO downtime outside of regular maintenance.

  • Are there any plans to license your technology?

    Generally, depending on the client and as our relationship develops, there are certain opportunities with respect to licensing but for the most part we like to have established a ‘track record’ with companies that we appoint as agents/representatives/distributors and certainly this requires companies with expertise and experience in any given region and in our industry as a whole. Our current business plan is to construct plants jointly with partners who have waste streams under their control. As we develop our business further, we may on a case-by-case basis license our technologies and facilities.

    One such possibility is the licensing of our technologies to third parties in exchange for up-front licensing fees and on-going production royalties. These fees and royalties are negotiable, as is the territory that will be covered by any particular licensing agreement. Klean will also provide technical assistance in the engineering, construction and possible operation of new plants (on a reimbursable cost basis) and retain a certain amount of control with respect to changes or modifications from current plant designs. Klean also has working relationships with engineering and construction management firms around the world. As developments warrant, Klean could also become involved as a joint-venture partner in recycling plants and share in construction cost and profits. It is expected that the duration of a license agreement will extend for the life of any plant or plants, but that an additional license fee and royalties will be charged for subsequent plants built by the same licensee.

  • Does Klean Industries receive a technology royalty?

    Depending on the technology required for a specific application royalties are required. Royalties also depend on the structure of the project. Royalties provide the client with protected areas as we would generally not construct another competing processing plant in the same geographical area causing competition for feedstock. Our royalties are usually structured as front-end and are based on processing volume.

  • What is the estimated cost of a fully operational facility?

    The actual cost of each plant will vary depending on site location, available infrastructure for the site, and whether an existing building is available. The turn-key contract cost for the initial operation, exclusive of site, building, and infrastructure is completely customer and site-specific, as no two projects are the same. The purchase price will include license fees and the costs of Klean Industries technical supervision and assistance during installation and set-up. Once Klean has received a purchase order for one of our systems the complete plant will be assembled and fully operational in approximately 6 to 12 months from the date of the invoice, anywhere in the world. For more information on pricing, please see Get Your Detailed, Finance Ready Plant Quotation »> GO!

  • What is the cost to a community to develop and build a large scale WTE facility?

    Depending on the location, size, and other factors, the capital costs range greatly depending on the design of the facility, however generally from $200,000 to $350,000 per daily ton of capacity. Therefore, a plant that processes 1,000 tons of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) per day that produces 60 mWh may cost $295 million.

  • Does Klean Industries have patents on its technologies?

    Klean Industries utilizes patented technologies and processes in many of its applications. Klean and its technology partners have received many world-wide patents. Some of Klean Industries’ proprietary technologies shall be maintained as Trade Secret information. Below are sample copies of world wide patents utilized by Klean Industries.

  • How many resource-recovery plants are currently using the technologies offered by Klean Industries and how many exist that are commercially operational?

    As of the end of 2015 there will be approximately 500 examples of these technologies spread all over Asia and around the world, processing different materials to produce customer-specific products using our true tertiary recycling technologies where we have provide technology for all or part of a facility. With many fully commercial plants built and more plants under development for North America and Europe, Klean Industries is envisions being a low cost leader in delivering the highest possible returns both environmentally and financially.

  • What are the specs of the oil produced from Klean technologies?

    The systems produce different quality fuels from different waste streams. The bio-refineries will produce products to meet commercial specifications depending on the facility and the client’s needs.

  • Can Klean system oil be used for home heating oil?

    Yes, it is currently used by many large utility companies throughout Asia. Our renewable diesel product can be run as a neat or blended. Many applications of the Klean fuels are used in boilers for heating and turbines for electrical power generation.

  • Can Klean renewable diesel be used as a replacement fuel for automobiles?

    Depending on the feedstock, plastics for example can be converted into high-grade, environmentally friendly, synthetic diesel fuel meeting EN590 standards. This fuel has better properties and produces fewer emissions when burned than regular CIMAC-10 refinery-based diesel fuel. The approved diesel fuel can be used directly in diesel engines. Some feedstocks require further refining but it is possible to make fractional distillate components.

  • Does the Klean process compete with large oil companies/refineries?

    Klean fuels are not in competition with large oil companies or refineries. We consult with many oil companies in regard to designing new products and systems that can be integrated to recover these high grade resources that are locked in many waste streams such as tires and plastics. It makes sense that the infrastructure used for oil distribution be developed to support green fuel products. The same oil pipelines and fuel stations and refineries can be used to transport and distribute renewable diesel.

  • Are there any prospects for growth?

    Klean along with its partners in the UK, Australia, Africa, Europe, Japan, and China are continuing to develop plants, systems and projects for tertiary recycling of commodity tires, plastics, biomass, organics and scrap electronics. Both the scale of the problem posed by plastics waste and the value of the products that can be reclaimed present an unlimited opportunity for Klean Industries’ environmental services and technologies.

  • Is your company listed on a stock exchange? If not, do you plan on going public?

    Klean Industries is not currently a publicly traded company. We are privately held and funded. We are in the process of developing different plans and options which one day may include the possibility of becoming a publicly traded company. That said, no revenue information is available at the present time. Please check back often for an update on Klean Industries’ plans.

    Annual Reports

    There are no Annual Reports available to the public at the present time. Should you wish to discuss a private-placement opportunity, or would like to be contacted when Klean Industries Inc. makes press releases, please contact Klean Industries Inc.

  • Are there any employment/internship opportunities at Klean Industries?

    If any employment opportunities exist they will be posted on our website. Should you wish to apply for these positions, please follow the instructions on our website and send resumes to hr(@)